The Guide To The Manufacturing Process

In the digital age, technology has become an important part of our everyday lives. Left and right, we make use of appliances to perform tasks as simple as solving math equations and as complex as building structures. Our company, which you can visit online at, specializes in the creation of PCBs. PCBs are also known as printed circuit boards that are used in almost all electrical appliances. While the existence of computers and the chips that run them are no new concept to society, many people are not aware of the special processes manufacturing companies like us perform in order to create printed circuit boards. We at aim to familiarize you with the typical production process of PCBs.

Following Are The Guideline To The Manufacturing Process :

The printed circuit board is multi-layered, which means that majority of the manufacturing steps involve putting together various layers of material. However, not all boards need to be made of the same raw materials. For example, the fiberglass used for the substrate may be substituted by high temperature plastics, though it is preferable to invest in more expensive raw materials as these are superior in quality and longer-lasting.

Printed circuit board

In multi-layered board fabrication, copper foil is placed on top of substrate material while being put through an oven where it is cured. A substrate is used as a surface to support other layers of the PCB and is often at the center. It is more common for copper to be present on both sides of a PCB, but some boards out there may only have one layer of copper on the substrate.

Oftentimes, there is a blueprint-like pattern to be followed by machines when printing onto the PCB. They are presented in the format of Gerber data. This comes into use when the copper coated substrate is put into a CNC machine. CNC machines are run by computers in order to follow a designated control pattern. When in a CNC machine, Gerber data is read and used to know where to drill holes in the board. Copper is plated onto holes that are to be turned into conductive circuits while those that are not are plugged to avoid being plated.

Depending on the company’s style of manufacturing, circuit patterns can be placed either by a subtractive or additive process. Data from the file containing the circuit layout is transferred through photo-resist and imaging. This way, even if something is placed over the copper layer, UV light can expose the pattern of copper circuits.


The board is then coated in tin-lead. Since the tin-lead is not needed to be over the whole board, it is put through a hot oil bath, which melts the tin-lead into a shiny surface. This will not remain on the board for long for it will be etched away in later steps. The photo-resist from earlier does not stay for long because it is stripped from the panel. The circuits that were revealed during the imaging are exposed and defined by chemical means. At this point, the board looks almost finished.

A solder mask is placed on top of the copper to insulate it. It is often green in appearance and prevents contact with other conductive metals and protects the circuits from oxidation. A silkscreen is printed onto the board to label information about it, such as parts and logos. This is the white writing seen on a finished board. Colors used for the silkscreen may vary from the traditional white, but it is rare for multiple colors to be used at the same for the sake of uniformity. The board is covered in a surface finish and fabricated.

This is how PCBs are generally made. Just remember that each manufacturing company has its own method and process of producing PCBs. By visiting, you can observe our own methods and read up the many informative articles provide. is only one of the many companies out there that is part of the ever-evolving PCB market. We are all constantly trying to improve methods to create faster and more efficient ways to produce printed circuit boards.

Choosing the right place to buy your components is just as important as choosing the right place to manufacture your board. If you are looking for top quality boards, we offer them here at

24 Aug 2016

Safety Talks: Tips for Speakers

Safety talks are basically short presentations (speeches) on health and safety on the job. It emphasizes the commitment of both the employer and employee to reduce hazards in the workplace. Minimizing accidents on the job is the primary concern of any company with of course, less cost.

Safety talks is probably one of the most interesting and challenging topics to deliver as a motivational speaker. How so? Well, for one thing, your target audience are professionals – professionals with their set biases. These include rank and file employees plus top management. These are the people with knowledge of how things go about the company. They have already gained ample experience from years of service.Moreover, much of their habits, attitudes and perspectives are brought about by the people they worked with – their bosses and colleagues. Now, the tricky part here is communicating safety to them, changing their mindset on safety and how to get these people involved in just a matter of minutes (or the duration of the session).

Secondly, your message is clearly identified: safety. You can not deviate away from this topic but by all means, find ways on how to present it in different angles suitable for the culture of the company. One must keep in mind that the ultimate goal of his presentation is to encourage the top management to pursue this as a priority in the company and for employees to embrace the value of safety in their line of work.

It may look as if safety talks are hard to pull. Well, it is NOT IMPOSSIBLE! Here are some tips to help you achieve a successful safety talk:

1.    Be engaging.

speakerJust like any other speeches or presentations that you have delivered, talks should be engaging as well. Ordinary workers, most especially those who have worked for several years in the company, might find the topic “not useful”. They might think that it’s “just another boring talk about work.” They believe that they already know everything there is to know on being safe. They don’t want changes. Constant is safe.

Your audience has already a bag full of preconceptions with them. You must be able to work your way through these barriers in order to get your desired result. Break those preconceptions and create a new one. You want them to come into realization and pursue a plan of action. You have to keep them motivated. And you can’t do that if they will be sneering and snoring for the duration of your talk. Try to be creative in delivering your message. A good sense of humor can be way helpful to make this heavy topic lighter.

2.    Be professional.

Remember, you are dealing with professionals. So, you must also be professional. Professional in the way you dress, you carry yourself, your manners, and your speech. You want them not just to hear what you have to say but also to follow through. And it’s hard to follow someone whom you think is not credible. Cracking jokes can be good ice breakers but be aware of boundaries. You want them to be engaged but not overly so that they don’t take the issue on safety seriously. In the end, you want them to remember your key points NOT your jokes!

3.    Be informative.

Safety talks should be backed with careful and thorough research. You don’t give information based on a hunch. They come to your presentation to learn, to be informed. You need to be updated with the latest survey, statistics, research and other information that can be used to drive home your message. Learn about the company as well – their policies (old and new) and if there are incident reports to review, etc.You want to open their minds on the importance of safety. Presenting facts will help.

4.    Be sympathetic.

You must be able to show them their value as an individual worker and collectively as an organization. You have to make them understand that their safety is of utmost concern. If people can see their value, they would learn to appreciate the essence of being responsible for their own safety and accountable for the safety of others they come in contact with.

5.    Be real.

Effective motivational speakers speak from the heart. It adds to your credibility to speak directly based on your experience, if you do have one. Honestly, it’s quite hard to talk about something you don’t clearly know or haven’t experienced. Yes, you could always count on research to know more about your topic but, it takes experience to fully understand which theories are true and effective, and which ones are impossible and nominal. Talking with your head is informative but talking with your heart – well, that’s appealing.Again, keep in mind that your objective is not only to inform but to “motivate” them into a plan of action.

Though several companies have paid enormous amounts of money for safety equipment, training workers, hiring professionals and changing systems, still a great number of industries are just shrugging their shoulders and turning their heads the other way when safety issues arise. They fail to realize that safety goes hand in hand with productivity. That when people feel safe, they would work harder because they don’t need to fear being hurt. Clearly, injured or worse, dead employees aren’t as productive as those who are healthy and secured.

Safety First – this is probably the most widely used signage in companies. But reminders are just words. Reducing the risk of incidents in the workplace takes hard work. Motivational speakers can take part of that action through providing safety talks. Hopefully, the above mentioned tips can help you deliver a powerful talk to help save more lives!

Safety TalksSafety talks is probably one of the most interesting and challenging topics to deliver as a motivational speaker. Just like any other speeches or presentations that you have delivered, talks should be engaging as well.

27 May 2016

Types of Golf Club Every Beginner Needs to Know

For starters, all golf clubs may look similar to one another. However, clubs differ according to the distance and degree of loft that they can set. For every game set, a golfer typically has one of every kind to match with the type of hit he or she needs. Clubs with low digits are designed to hit for a longer distance. Here are three of the most useful kind of club that every beginner golfer should know:


Woods are not really made of wood. Long before, these clubs are made of hickory or persimmon. Modern woods are now made from titanium and steel alloys and metals. It has a flat bottom, a huge circular head and a relatively lower loft degree. For hits that require the highest distance, woods are the optimal choice. They can cover even those that need two hundred yards of distance. When a wood is rated 1, it tends to hit the furthermost. The Fairway Woods from Taylormade golf only costs $89.99 and has a speed pocket embedded in its sole. It adds up to the speed of the ball to aim to a farther distance.


For less than 250 yards of distance, irons are used by golfers. It has a higher loft compared to wood type. They usually possess an all-metal plate, shorter shaft and a flat face. They are intended for several kinds of hits especially in challenging situations like dog leg, over the trees, or tee box holes. These types used to be made from forged metal irons. Developers have created a more advanced model for irons with a renowned cavity back style with have lesser centers of weight and gives stronger forces of inertia. It creates an effortless strike that covers large distance. The Rescue Hybrid model from Taylormade golf has a center of gravity feature that aims a higher strike. It also has a very light shaft and create more rapid swing. They also have the Burner plus model with a beveled sole and inverted cone feature.


The wedge type of club is for a strike that intends to make the ball hover before it comes to rest on a putting surface. It has higher loft degree compared to the two others and is a typical pick for distance of a hundred yards, high accuracy and high-altitude strikes. Wedges come in various types like the sand, lob, gap, pitching and ultra-lob wedge. The ATV wedge from Taylormade has many grinds on its sole and easily adjusts according to the type of strike needed. It normally costs $149 but comes in a 47% discount in Rock bottom golf.

The most widely used type of club is the putter. It has a loft degree of not more than 10 degrees and is used for short distance like for simple rolls on the green grass and for preventing the ball from bouncing. They are usually in 30 inch of size but can come in various lengths. Taller models include broomstick and belly putter. They are the only kinds that are permitted to have features, like grip cross-sections with non-circular feature, hostels, bent shafts and other attachments. Taylormade golf has launched a high end Golf-Spider Blade putter that only weight less than 150 grams. It has high moment of inertia and excellent counterbalance.

Taylormade golf also provides all other important golf equipment for every golfer. They have leather gloves, golf balls, cart bags, caps, drivers and every kind of club. Rock bottom golf offers these items at a highly discounted price and comes with free shipping service. They have a collection of golf accessories from various brands that can be accessed 24/7.


Author Bio:
golf gameFor every game set, a golfer typically has one of every kind to match with the type of hit he or she needs. Taylormade golf also provides all other important golf equipment for every golfer. They have leather gloves, golf balls, cart bags, caps, drivers and every kind of club.

19 May 2016

Significance of Custom Challenge Coins

There are some people who are unfamiliar about challenge coins. Some may have not yet heard of it. Maybe most people think that these are just coins used as tokens, souvenirs, and symbols. Some may think that there are no real uses to it.

On the other hand, our company believes that custom challenge coins are special. We have been creating challenge coins for our customers for years that’s why we can testify its significance in our society nowadays, and as well as in history.

We’ve seen our customers giving away our products as mementos for popular people such as the government officials. We’ve also seen different organizations use our products as a way to recognize their members. That’s why we’re sure that challenge coins are more than just pieces of decorated metals.

Challenge Coins

So what are Custom Challenge Coins?

Unlike the coins that we’re using for purchase every day, challenge coins are different. Their forms are different from each other depending on which organization you’re in or what kind of position you have in an organization. These coins are also known as medallions.

Our company engraves organizational symbols, motto, and other signage that can represent the organization’s identity on challenge coins. We also produce them in different sizes, styles, thickness, and diameter. We use different kinds of metal to produce them, such as copper, nickel, brass metal, and sometimes we plate them with gold or silver.

Nowadays, we’ve seen that our custom challenge coins are commonly used for recognitions, awards, IDs, or business cards. These are used by different organizations including the military personnel, police personnel, fire department personnel, and different corporations to recognize the special achievements done by their members.

We’ve seen that our challenge coins are also used for building an organization’s morale. Sometimes they are given away even to the non-members of an organization to recognize their support, importance or contribution.

But historically speaking, challenge coins were made to fulfill other significant purposes other than just emblems for awards and recognitions. In fact, there was a part in history that challenge coins were used by important people and were used for identification purposes.

Some Contributions of Challenge Coins throughout the History

Challenge coins as wage and bonuses

The real origin of challenge coins is yet unknown. The earliest known in history, was when these were used to recognize the soldiers who were always in a battle during the Ancient Rome. Custom coins would serve as their day’s wage and bonus.

Unlike the challenge coins nowadays, the custom coins used by the Ancient Romans could be used to purchase stuff. However, most of the Ancient Roman soldiers chose to keep them as mementos because these had a special mark of the legion where they came from.

A custom challenge coin that saved a soldier’s life

During the World War I, there were several new American volunteers who served as flying squadrons to an ally, the France. In one squadron, there was a wealthy officer who ordered several medallions engraved with the flying squadron’s insignia, and he gave these to each of his men. There was this one smart pilot, who kept his medallion in his small leather pouch that he was wearing around his neck.

Shortly after that incident, the young pilot’s aircraft was damaged. He had no choice but to land behind the German border, and there he was captured by Germans. The Germans took all his belongings, including all his identification documents and stuff, except the small pouch he was wearing around his neck.


One night, the pilot escaped, taking opportunity of an attack; He escaped without any proof of his identity. He hid from his capturers by disguising himself as one of the civilians until he reached a French outpost.

The French didn’t believe him and thought of him as a spy instead. It all happened because he had nothing to prove his identity. Because of that, he was sentenced to be executed.

Desperate enough, the young pilot showed them the medallion inside his leather pouch. The French recognized the coin’s insignia and decided to delay his execution to confirm his identity.

The French discovered that the pilot was really their ally and decided not to execute him anymore; instead, he was given a bottle of wine.

Because of this incident, his squadron had required its members to always carry his custom coin. This is where the challenge coin tradition had begun.

Because of its significance throughout the history, we are proud to say that our company creates more than just pieces of metals. We are proud to say that our custom challenge coins provide sentimental value, which are especially important for the members of an organization.

12 May 2016

Factors to Consider before Buying a Home

If you are still undecided on whether or not to buy a new home, here are some of the factors that you need to consider.

How Long You Plan to Live There

Purchasing a home is an expensive undertaking and it also involves quite a huge emotional investment. If you want to purchase a home, be ready to live in it for at least five years to regain the cost of purchase, to build equity, and to survive an uncertain real estate market. If you cannot commit to that, perhaps you are not yet prepared for the responsibility of being a homeowner.

Costs of Purchase

The local real estate market is a major factor in making a decision to buy a home. Through research, you can obtain an estimate of purchase costs and rental costs in a certain area. A realtor can also tell you about the neighborhoods as well as properties that you may consider. Most mortgage companies are willing to work with first-time home buyers and explain the whole mortgage process. They can also pre-qualify you in order for you to know the amount you could borrow. However, be cautious in considering the amount you want to spend on your home purchase and whether or not you are prepared to commit to it on a long-term basis.

How to Calculate the Costs

Calculate the CostsIf you will rent a house, you will normally have to provide a security deposit and an advance rental payment for a month or two. If you take care of the house, you will get the security deposit back when you are about to move. However, purchasing a property costs more money outright. This is the reason why you have to stay in that property for a few years to earn your investment back and to build equity.

To begin, you need cash for a serious money deposit on your home purchase, which is normally between $500 and $1,000, or as high as 5% of the total home price. Moreover, the down payment must be around 3.5% of the sales price through a mortgage that is FHA-insured; or around 5-20% through a regular loan. If a home is $100,000, this would be around $3,500.

Aside from the down payment, you also need to pay closing costs, which is normally about 2-5% of the total home price, depending on the local housing market. The other expenses related to home ownership include replacing or repairing appliances, paying for inspection, furnishing the house, and moving expenses. It is important to consider all of these expenses within the available cash that you have. You do not want to live in an empty house or one that needs remodelling or repairing because you have already spent all your money to purchase the property from li-realestatefinder.

Future Plans

Future PlansNobody truly knows what they will be doing in five years, but you must carefully consider your career and personal goals. If you expect to go up your career, but may have to move to do so, then renting might be best for you, unless you are sure that you want to have an investment property.

If you plan to get married and have kids, you have to consider if the home would be comfortable for a small family, or whether you would want to rent it out or sell after some time. If you are already married, want to start a family, and plan for one spouse to stop working or work less, ensure that a decrease in income can still cover your housing budget.

Ability to Fund a Home Purchase

The first thing to do when considering purchasing a home is to talk to a mortgage lender to find out if you are qualified to have a loan, and how much you can borrow. You can qualify for a loan depending on several important factors:

•Income – you need to prove that you can repay your loan through a steady flow of income.
•Credit score – you may qualify for a mortgage if you have a credit score of 620 or higher.
•Assets – you need to prove that your savings can cover the down payment and closing costs, and that you have available cash reserves in the bank.
•Debt-to-income ratio – the lender will compare your minimum payments on your outstanding debt against your gross monthly income. The maximum ratio is different among lenders, but most of them would not exceed 45% for a debt-to-income ratio.

You must consider purchasing a home as a serious matter and take time to think about all these factors so you can decide if home ownership is really meant for you.

07 May 2016

The importance of preparing research chemicals

For chemists, pharmacists, molecular biologists, and other scientists, there is probably nothing more important than the reliability of research chemicals and other reagents. These may seem to be pretty simple, but a lifetime’s worth of work can actually depend on this mostly underestimated thing.


chemicalThe preparation of research chemicals is almost always the first step of every experiment. It could also be the most simple thing to do among so many other complicated steps, tests, and assays a scientist has to do. However, similar to everything else in the world, failing at the very first step may lead to huge difficulties in the succeeding steps. This can then result into an unfavorable result or a total experiment failure, which can lead to more experiments or to a total loss for the researcher and the laboratory.


In science, there is no such thing as conducting an experiment. Rather, researchers and scientists are always conducting a series of experiments. Of course, these experiments are very costly because the future of the world and of humanity depends on these seemingly fragile glass test tubes, Petri dishes, and research chemicals. Hence, a scientist should always be very careful, accurate, and precise in everything he does, in order to minimize repeat experiments due to human error. He should check whether the reagents he is using are still fine and have not yet reached their expiration dates.


The pH should be measured accurately and it should be just right. He should have taken it from its proper storage. If a reagent is supposed to be stored in a -4°C environment, then it should have been taken from a refrigerator and not from a freezer nor from the stockroom. The research chemical’s concentration should also be properly checked, and proper dilution measures should be done when needed. During this dilution process, sterile distilled water should always be used. For stricter procedures, especially in molecular biology and analytical chemistry, one should then use sterile distilled deionized water to obtain better and more accurate results.


Another thing to consider in the preparation of research chemicals is appearance. This might be really obvious and should not even be mentioned in the first place, but research laboratories and quality assurance laboratories are really stressful. These obvious things might be taken for granted a lot of times due to time constraints, heavy load of things undone, and pressure from obtaining good results among many others. Therefore, scientists and technicians should always practice checking the reagents before usage. If a solution appears different than normal, it should automatically be discarded.


For example, if it appears yellowish when it is supposed to be clear, then one should no longer use it. Also, solutions that have formed unusual precipitates should be avoided. Scientists can simply discard these unwanted reagents and solutions in the first place in order for the laboratory to be cleaner and more organized. Regular cleaning of stocks can also clear confusions and those mistakes in taking and pouring can also be minimized or totally avoided. Aside from regular checking of stocks, one should make sure that the reagent bottles used for storage should also be clean. Make sure that they can be closed really tight or that the caps or lids do not have any breaks through which particulate matter could enter.


Preparing research chemicals for an experiment may be a very easy and simple task, but it should never be taken for granted. One should always remember that if something goes wrong during this step, nothing at all will be accomplished. Simply put, anyone who engages in scientific endeavors should always be both careful and mindful.

18 Apr 2016